4.3 Your Program's Arguments
The arguments to your program can be specified by the arguments of the run command. They are passed to a shell, which expands wildcard characters and performs redirection of I/O, and thence to your program. Your SHELL environment variable (if it exists) specifies what shell gdb uses. If you do not define SHELL, gdb uses the default shell (/bin/sh on Unix).
On non-Unix systems, the program is usually invoked directly by gdb, which emulates I/O redirection via the appropriate system calls, and the wildcard characters are expanded by the startup code of the program, not by the shell.
run with no arguments uses the same arguments used by the previous run, or those set by the set args command.
Specify the arguments to be used the next time your program is run. If set args has no arguments, run executes your program with no arguments. Once you have run your program with arguments, using set args before the next run is the only way to run it again without arguments.